Vers un nouveau bouclier anti-crise pour la zone euro

07 Décembre, 2017, 00:27 | Auteur: Auguste Feret
  • Vers un nouveau bouclier anti-crise pour la zone euro

C'est l'une des propositions de la Commission européenne pour réformer la zone euro. Ces propositions, destinées à parfaire l'Union économique et monétaire (UEM), avait été promises en septembre par le président de l'exécutif européen, Jean-Claude Juncker, qui entendait profiter de "la fenêtre d'opportunité" offerte par la reprise économique dans l'UE et la fin des processus électoraux en France et en Allemagne.

La Commission européenne, qui a dévoilé ce mercredi son plan de réforme pour la zone euro, a proposé de créer en 2019 un Fonds monétaire européen qui pourrait se substituer au FMI en Europe.

Mais les déboires de la chancelière Angela Merkel, qui n'est toujours pas parvenue à former un nouveau gouvernement avec un partenaire de coalition, ont bouleversé la donne, alors que le président français Emmanuel Macron a lui même présenté ses idées sur l'avenir de la monnaie unique en septembre dernier à la Sorbonne, à Paris.

Un Fonds monétaire européen pour sauver les pays de la zone euro dans le besoin, une série de lignes budgétaires pour une zone euro stable et un ministre européen de l'Économie et des Finances, telles sont les grandes lignes des propositions que la Commission européenne a mises mercredi sur la table pour renforcer la zone euro.

Le MES, qui a joué déjà un rôle très important dans le dernier programme d'aide à la Grèce, pourrait ainsi se substituer au FMI, basé à Washington, dans les futurs programmes d'aide aux pays en difficulté.

En plus de venir en aide aux pays de la zone euro en difficulté, ce FME, financé par les États, pourrait aussi endosser un rôle de garant des banques en difficulté dans la zone euro, au cas où les mesures déjà prévues par les établissements financiers et les États nationaux dans le cadre de l'Union bancaire ne seraient pas suffisantes.

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Le nouvel organe garderait l'architecture et les prérogatives du MES, mais deviendrait communautaire.

Aujourd'hui, le poste de président de l'Eurogroupe, l'instance qui réunit les ministres des Finances de la zone euro, est ce qui s'apparente le plus à un ministre des Finances européen.

Cette idée de le transformer en organisme communautaire risque d'inquiéter Berlin, plus gros contributeur financier au MES, ainsi que les autres gros pays, car ils perdraient de leur influence. "Je pense que le caractère intergouvernemental du MES nous a aidés à créer de la confiance entre les États membres", a-t-il vanté récemment. D'autant plus que la seconde proposition de la Commission, celle qui prévoit la création d'un ministre européen des Finances qui devrait "cumuler les fonctions de commissaire européen aux Affaires économiques et monétaires et président de l'Eurogroupe", n'emporte pas non plus l'adhésion.

Les Allemands ont déjà prévenu: tout dépend des compétences qu'il aura.

Les chefs d'État et de gouvernement doivent se pencher sur les projets de réforme le 15 décembre prochain, à l'occasion d'un sommet européen à Bruxelles. "Personne n'aime le paquet (de propositions) de la Commission, mais personne ne sera assez courageux pour le dire", faisait observer une source citée par l'AFP.

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