More Than A Quadrillion Tons Of Diamonds Lay Within The Earth
17 Juillet, 2018, 14:52 | Auteur: Therese Cote
As far back as a couple of decades, companies, for instance, the United States Geological Survey have kept overall records of seismic activity, fundamentally, strong waves experiencing the Earth that are initiated by earthquakes, tidal waves, impacts, and other ground-shaking sources.
When looking at the data, scientists were baffled by a peculiar phenomena, the sound waves appeared to speed up when passing through the roots of ancient cratons.
'We can't get at them, but still, there is much more diamond there than we have ever thought before'.
'One of its special properties is, the sound velocity in diamond is more than twice as fast as in the dominant mineral in upper mantle rocks, olivine'.
Scientists can also use this seismic data to construct an image of what the Earth's interior might look like.
Sound waves travel at different speeds depending on the composition, temperature, and density of the rocks and minerals they travel through, giving scientists a method to estimate what types of rocks are below the Earth's surface by comparing the velocities of these sound waves, according to MIT. "Then we have to say, 'There is a problem.' That's how this project started". This might not seem much in terms of the total amount of material in the crust and mantle, but it is 1,000 times more diamonds than expected. Parts of Earth's mantle may be up to two percent diamond by composition, far more than previously suspected.
Faul and his colleagues calculated that the anomaly could be caused by 1%-2% of diamonds in the 'cratonic roots'.
"Dr Faul explained: "[Cratons] are like pieces of wood, floating on water.
Only one matched what they were seeing from the Earth's core.
Scientists have found a hidden treasure trove of diamonds that contains more than a quadrillion tons of the precious jewel.
'This is how they preserve the oldest rocks.
Based on the enormous size of these rock formations, there could be up to a quadrillion (10^6) tons of diamond residing there, 90 to 150 miles below the surface. Down there, diamonds may not be so rare after all - it's just hard for them to make it to the surface and onto the rings and earrings of human beings. These eruptions carve out geologic "pipes" made of a type of rock called kimberlite (named after the town of Kimberley, South Africa, where the first diamonds in this type of rock were found).
"It's circumstantial evidence, but we've pieced it all together".
"We went through all the different possibilities, from every angle, and this is the only one that's left as a reasonable explanation", Faul said. A meticulous researcher who's not afraid to be controversial, he is nationally known as a journalist who opens people's eyes to the realities behind accepted practices in the care of children.
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