Deux Américains récompensés pour leurs travaux sur le climat — "Nobel d'économie"

09 Octobre, 2018, 10:35 | Auteur: Auguste Feret
  • Paul Romer alors économiste en chef de la Banque mondiale le 31 janvier 2017 à Paris

L'annonce de ce Nobel coïncide avec la publication d'un rapport alarmiste des experts climat de l'ONU (Giec) qui appellent à des transformations " sans précédent " pour limiter le réchauffement climatique. M. Romer a démissionné avec fracas au début de l'année de son poste d'économiste en chef de la Banque mondiale sur fond de désaccord avec le président de l'institution.

Son compatriote William Nordhaus, 77 ans, professeur à l'Université de Yale, s'est spécialisé dans la recherche des conséquences économiques du réchauffement climatique.

Paul Romer, 62 ans, enseignant à la Stern School of Business de l'université de New York, a posé les bases de la théorie de "la croissance endogène ".

Le prix Nobel d'économie, ou officiellement le Prix de la Banque de Suède en mémoire d'Alfred Nobel car ce prix ne figurait pas dans le testament d'Alfred Nobel, célèbre cette année son 50e anniversaire. Au milieu des années 90, il est le premier à avoir créé un modèle visant à quantifier l'interaction entre l'économie et le climat, en simulant leur évolution dans le temps. Il sert notamment à examiner les conséquences de politiques climatiques comme l'introduction de la taxe carbone, précise l'Académie.

" Nous pouvons vraiment réaliser des progrès substantiels pour protéger l'environnement sans pour autant renoncer à assurer une croissance durable", a assuré Paul Romer.

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Les pays récalcitrants qui ne voudraient pas rejoindre ce " club du climat " seraient sanctionnés via des barrières douanières par exemple.

Le prix Nobel d'économie était allé l'an dernier à l'Américain Richard Thaler, père de la méthode dite du "coup de pouce", censée corriger les comportements irrationnels des consommateurs, contribuables ou investisseurs.

L'un des deux économistes à s'être vu attribué le Prix Nobel d'Economie en 2018 est un rebelle à l'establishment.

Ils se partageront le prix de 9 millions de couronnes (environ 860 000 euros).

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