Retraites : le gouvernement va-t-il repousser le taux plein à 63 ans ?

10 Octobre, 2018, 16:22 | Auteur: Auguste Feret
  • Philippe Martinez leader de la CGT en juillet 2017 à Matignon

Après la "réunion multilatérale" organisée mercredi matin au ministère des Solidarités et de la Santé, le secrétaire général de FO s'est dit "satisfait" d'avoir obtenu "plus d'éléments concrets que lors des six derniers mois", même s'il réclame toujours "que soient faites des simulations" sur des cas pratiques. Une quinzaine de mesures ont été annoncées.

Beaucoup d'aspects de la réforme restent à négocier, notamment la transition entre les 42 régimes de retraite actuels et le futur système "universel". Voici ce qu'il faut en retenir.

Il y a de plus en plus de retraités et ils vivent plus longtemps, l'équilibre financier du régime des retraites est donc menacé. L'âge légal de départ à la retraite serait bien maintenu à 62 ans. Dans les faits, cela revient à inciter les salariés qui pourraient partir à 62 ans à reporter leur retraite à 63 ans, voire davantage.

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Ces cotisations seront converties en points, qui seront "accumulés tout au long de la vie" et "enregistrés sur un compte unique" pour calculer les futures pensions. "Les interruptions d'activité" comme le chômage, l'invalidité, la maladie ou la maternité resteront compensées dans ce système par points, qui accordera une bonification "pour chaque enfant, dès le premier enfant" et non plus à partir du troisième.

L'exécutif a tenté de rassurer en listant quelques "grands principes", comme le maintien des pensions de réversion et du minimum de pension pour les bas salaires et les carrières hachées. La réversion, qui permet aux veufs de toucher une partie de la retraite de leur conjoint décédé, concerne aujourd'hui 4,4 millions de personnes, dont 89% de femmes. Mais si le salarié décide de partir à cet âge, alors sa pension subirait une décote même si il a acquis tous ses droits.

Enfin, une fois votée, la réforme ne s'appliquera pas tout de suite: ceux qui s'apprêtent à prendre leur retraite dans les cinq prochaines années ne seront pas concernés et seront toujours régis par le système actuel.

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