L'exécutif dévoile ses premiers arbitrages — Réforme des retraites

11 Octobre, 2018, 09:52 | Auteur: Auguste Feret
  • Le gouvernement teste l'idée d'une retraite à taux plein à 63 ans

Le gouvernement a abattu ses premières cartes. Le Haut commissaire à la réforme des retraites Jean-Paul Delevoye a présenté aux partenaires sociaux une quinzaine de lignes directrices, reprenant en partie les engagements d'Emmanuel Macron de remplacer la quarantaine de régimes par un système "universel" où chaque euro cotisé donnerait "les mêmes droits" pour tous. Bouleversement: le nouveau mode de calcul des retraites serait donc un système par points, financé par tous les travailleurs jusqu'à 10 000 euros bruts de revenus mensuels, qu'ils soient salariés du public et du privé, et une majoration sera accordée "dès le premier enfant".

"Après la " réunion multilatérale " organisée, ce mercredi matin, au ministère des Solidarités et de la Santé, le secrétaire général de FO, Pascal Pavageau, qui désespérait " que le gouvernement sorte du bois", s'est dit " satisfait " d'avoir obtenu " plus d'éléments concrets que lors des six derniers mois", même s'il réclame toujours " que soient faites des simulations " sur des cas pratiques.

Deuxième certitude, sans surprise, la fin des 42 régimes de retraite actuels (obligatoires et complémentaires), remplacés par un seul régime, que l'on soit salarié, fonctionnaire, indépendant ou libéral. À l'avenir, pour toucher sa retraite de base à taux plein, il faudra peut-être attendre 63 ans et non 62 ans, comme aujourd'hui. Les travailleurs indépendants, en revanche, " bénéficieront d'un régime de cotisations adapté afin de ne pas bouleverser les équilibres économiques de leur activité ". Les points accumulés, qui permettront de calculer le montant de la retraite, seront enregistrés dans un compte unique. "Les interruptions d'activité " comme le chômage, l'invalidité, la maladie ou la maternité resteront compensées dans ce système par points.

Le président s'est engagé à maintenir l'âge actuel de 62 ans comme base de départ.

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L'exécutif a tenté de rassurer en listant quelques "grands principes", comme le maintien des pensions de réversion et du minimum de pension pour les bas salaires et les carrières hachées. En attendant (quinze ans?), Jean-Paul Delevoye plaide pour le régime universel: "Qu'il s'agisse d'un fonctionnaire, d'un salarié du privé ou d'un indépendant, s'ils gagnent la même somme d'argent pendant 40 ans, l'un et l'autre auront la même retraite".

Elle sera "progressive" et ne concernera ni les retraités actuels, ni "ceux qui seront à moins de cinq ans de l'âge de départ au moment de l'adoption de la loi", selon M. Delevoye. Pour tous les autres, la transition "sera très progressive" et les droits acquis "avant l'entrée en vigueur du nouveau système seront conservés à 100%". "On va vous dire "vous pouvez partir à 62 ans" mais si vous n'avez pas les moyens de vivre, vous allez continuer à travailler pour avoir plus de points", prédit-il, expliquant que "la finalité, c'est que vous allez partir à 65, 67 ans".

A court terme, le calendrier reste incertain: la concertation "nous amène déjà en avril-mai", reconnaît le Haut commissaire. Le texte que le chef de l'Etat voulait voir "voté au premier semestre " pourrait donc être déposé après les élections européennes, pour une adoption "dans le courant de l'année 2019 ".

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