La Chine envisage d'adhérer au pacte transpacifique abandonné par Donald Trump

22 Novembre, 2020, 10:36 | Auteur: Anatole Charbonneau
  • Les 21 pays membres de l'Apec qui sont situés de part et d'autre des rives du Pacifique représentent 60% du PIB mondial

Il devrait aussi "mettre l'accent à nouveau sur le protectionnisme et le processus qui vise à empêcher la Chine de revendiquer le premier rôle dans le jeu du libre-échange".

Lors du sommet du Forum économique Asie-Pacifique (Apec), le président chinois Xi Jinping a déclaré que ses pays membres devaient "continuer à promouvoir l'intégration économique régionale et établir une zone de libre-échange Asie-Pacifique à une date rapprochée". Pékin est devenu le principal moteur de l'organisation ces dernières années après que Washington a commencé à se retirer des structures multilatérales sous l'impulsion de Donald Trump.

Donald Trump a rejoint vendredi soir le sommet virtuel, apparaissant aux côtés d'autres dirigeants par liaison vidéo au moment où le Premier ministre malaisien, l'hôte de l'Apec cette année, prononçait son discours d'ouverture. "Les Etats-Unis, toujours dirigés par l'administration protectionniste de Trump, ne devraient pas avoir un rôle proactif cette année à l'Apec", estime Oh Ei Sun, analyste de l'Institut de Singapour pour les Affaires internationales. C'est son conseiller à la sécurité Robert O'Brian qui a représenté les Etats-Unis.

Le président américain n'a pas participé ces dernières semaines aux sommets avec les leaders asiatiques de l'Asean. Cette réunion intervient une semaine après la signature du plus vaste accord de libre-échange au monde entre la Chine et 14 autres pays d'Asie-Pacifique.

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Ce Partenariat régional économique global (RCEP), dans lequel ne figure ni les États-Unis ni l'Inde, est vu comme une victoire pour Pékin. "La vision optimiste est que le nouveau gouvernement représentera au moins un changement de politique commerciale".

Ce partenariat transpacifique global et progressiste (CPTPP) est une version actualisée du pacte de libre-échange transpacifique (TPP), initialement soutenu par l'ancien président américain Barack Obama, promut pour contrer la montée en puissance de la Chine en Asie-Pacifique.

Donald Trump avait retiré son pays de cet accord en janvier 2017, en dénonçant des accords multilatéraux "défavorables", mais onze pays ont fini par signer une nouvelle version de ce pacte. Les dirigeants de l'Apec "doivent restaurer la confiance et la certitude qu'il y aura un regain de croissance après le Covid", explique un diplomate participant au sommet sous couvert de l'anonymat. "Nous sommes dans un degré d'incertitude tel que l'Apec doit donner une indication forte sur la direction vers laquelle on va".

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